Implikatur Percakapan dalam Studi Linguistik Pragmatik (Conversational Implicature in Pragmatic Linguistic Studies)

Akhmad Saifudin

Abstract


 

Tulisan ini membahas implikatur percakapan, yakni sebuah studi dalam ilmu linguistik pragmatik yang mengkaji maksud penutur dalam percakapan. Tujuan penulisan ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan apa itu implikatur percakapan, bagaimana mengidentifikasi dan memaknai implikatur, serta mengapa penutur menggunakan implikatur dalam tuturannya. Untuk mengkaji permasalahan digunakan teori Grice tentang prinsip kerja sama (PK), maksim percakapan (MP), dan implikatur percakapan. Data percakapan diperoleh dari observasi percakapan natural antara penulis dan mahasiswa, serta percakapan di antara mahasiswa yang terjadi di lingkungan kampus. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pada dasarnya dalam setiap percakapan digunakan implikatur. Implikatur digunakan bukan karena tidak ingin bekerja sama dalam percakapan, tetapi ada alasan yang lebih diprioritaskan dan alasan tersebut tidak dapat mematuhi semua maksim dalam MP. Implikatur percakapan digunakan untuk tujuan efisiensi verbal, pengalihan tanpa berbohong, kesopanan, dan tujuan estetika, serta ironi.

 

This paper discusses the conversational implicature, which is a study in pragmatic linguistics that examines the intent of speakers in conversation. The purpose of this paper is to describe what the conversational implicature is, how to identify and interpret the implicature, and why do speakers want to engage in implicature. To study the problem Grice's theory of the cooperative principle, maxims of conversation, and the conversational implicature are used. Conversation data is obtained from observations of natural conversations between writers and students, as well as conversations between students that occur on campus. The results of the analysis show that basically in every conversation the implicature is used; The implicature is used not because they do not want to cooperate in conversation, but because there are prioritized reasons and those reasons cannot comply with all maxims in maxims of conversation. The conversationalimplicature is used for the purpose of verbal efficiency, misleading to lying, politeness, and aesthetic purposes, as well as irony.


Keywords


implikatur percakapan, prinsip kerja sama, maksim percakapan, pragmatik, maksim pengabaian

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.36567/jalabahasa.v16i1.423

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